The Influence of Franz Brentano on Modern Philosophy

Franz Brentano
Franz Brentano

During the 1920s, Franz Brentano was a key player in the development of modernist literature. The following article looks at his theories on the nature of the judgment, intentionality, and time consciousness. It also provides insight into how these theories influence modernist literature.

Influence on modernist literature

During the late nineteenth century, Franz Brentano developed an influential philosophy of religion and psychology. His work had a significant effect on modernist literature.

Franz Brentano was a pupil of Adolf Trendelenburg. Brentano was ordained a Catholic priest in 1864 and became a professor at the University of Vienna in 1874. He taught there until 1895. He moved to Zurich, Switzerland in 1895. Brentano’s philosophy is influenced by reism. He believed that the basic category is “res.” Brentano was also influenced by philosophers such as Edmund Husserl, Carl Stumpf, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Max Scheler. He was also influenced by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

Brentano argued that every psychological experience contains an immanent object. He conceived of judgments and emotional acts as analogous to judgments. He also argued that judgments are affirmations. He also developed ethics, using concepts of love and hate attitudes. He argued that ethics is parallel to logic. Brentano also developed empirical psychology. His work was greatly influential on psychology and psychoanalysis.

Brentano was also influential on the development of analytic philosophy. He was a key figure in the development of the Austrian school of values. Brentano’s system synthesized Aristotelianism and Cartesianism. He also developed a theory of intentional objects. He classified these objects as logical, metaphysical, and physical.

Brentano’s work on ethics had a significant influence on Max Scheler, G.E. Moore, and G.A. Moore. He also had a great influence on theologians such as Carl Jung, who attacked the ecclesiastical establishments of his time.

Brentano had a great influence on German and Austrian philosophy. His synthesis of Aristotelianism and Cartesianism helped to establish a new standard of Scholasticism. Brentano also developed empirical psychology and contributed to the development of syllogistic logic. His work on the intentionality of mental states is one of his most important contributions.

Theories of judgment

During his lifetime, Franz Brentano had a number of interesting insights about the relationship between judgment and truth. These insights were not only based on his theory of judgment but also on his metaphysics. This article explores some of these insights and their implications.

Brentano’s approach to the concept of judgment is highly unusual. He uses the term judgment very broadly. He uses the term to refer to both existential and non-existential judgements.

One of his most important insights is that existential judgments are not existence-ascribing. Existential judgments are rejections of objects, whereas existence-ascribing judgments apply properties and concepts to objects. Moreover, he is skeptical about the correspondence theory of truth.

He also points out that true judgments are not necessarily true in the apparent. He maintains that the true judgment must be accompanied by the presence of a true object. However, he does not explain how this correspondence can take place.

Another significant aspect of Brentano’s theory of judgment is the concept of reduction. This notion refers to the fact that all propositions are essentially existential propositions. In addition, he argues that existential judgments are not just predictions of properties.

Brentano’s theory of judgement demonstrates how language can mask the true nature of judgments. He contends that it is essential to understand judgments as products of conceptual thought. In fact, he says, there are no judgments that are not existential.

The key to Brentano’s theory of judgment is his emphasis on existential judgments. He claims that they are important to a variety of different arguments. He also criticizes other views for failing to work on existential judgments. His theory of judgment was published in 1930 as part of his book Truth and Evidence.

Theory of intentionality

During the 19th century, Franz Brentano introduced intentionality into philosophy. He took this idea from medieval scholastics and incorporated it into his work. Afterward, he became a philosophy professor at the University of Vienna.

Brentano conceived of intentionality as a kind of knowledge. He argued that all conscious states are directed toward something. He also proposed a distinction between a direct and an indirect mode of presentation.

He also proposed a distinction between perceptual consciousness and intentional consciousness. He also argued that all conscious states are in nearly aware. He also believed that dualism was possible. He took a position that was almost opposite to Ockham.

While he did not claim to be the first to introduce the notion of intentionality into philosophy, he is credited with being the founder of this important notion. He is also credited with the invention of phenomenology, a field of study that explains consciousness using scientific principles.

Brentano is known to have inspired many philosophers and psychologists, including Edmund Husserl. Husserl studied under Brentano and incorporated his idea of intentionality into his own work.

Husserl also invented the term “noema” which he defined as “structure.” He based his phenomenology on the idea of suspending the notion of the real world and using scientific principles to describe consciousness.

While the notion of intentionality is not new, the concept was used more extensively in the twentieth century in phenomenology and folk psychology. The theory of intentionality is not a simple concept. It involves a duality of act and object and has several other manifestations.

While many philosophers have tried to reduce intentionality to physicalist or naturalistic concepts, some have tried to make it purely linguistic. The question is whether there is a test for intentionality.


Whether or not Franz Brentano is a self-representationalist has been a hotly debated topic for some time. Some interpreters have read his original intentionality thesis as a theory of “phenomenal intentionality”. Others have claimed that Brentano is a self-representationalist, although no single interpretation is correct.

Brentano has been viewed as a forerunner of contemporary same-order theories of consciousness. His theories of inner awareness and intransitive consciousness are based on Aristotelian scholarship, however, their roots are more distant from modern thinking than they appear to be. In this paper, I seek to leverage his Aristotelian background to offer a different view of his concepts.

In his oeuvre, Brentano has defined many concepts, including the concept of an object. He utilizes a concept of an object that is derived from Aristotelian scholarship and ancient philosophy.

Brentano’s theory of inner awareness is an example of the Aristotelian-scholastic tradition’s definition of an object as a faculty or mental function. He distinguishes between perceptual consciousness and intentional consciousness. He posits that all conscious states are directed toward something. He maintains that this is the case even in intransitive consciousness.

His theory of inner awareness is also the foundation for his theory of perception. Brentano uses an Aristotelian concept of an object to differentiate between primary and secondary objects. He argues that these distinctions are important for the development of inner awareness.

Aside from his theories of perception, Brentano has also invented concepts such as inner consciousness. He argues that inner awareness has the merits of an accessory consciousness and a veridical consciousness.

In order to understand Brentano’s theories of inner awareness, however, it is important to examine them in the context of Aristotle’s psychology. Brentano’s theories of inner awareness are the forerunners of contemporary same-order theories of consciousness.

Methodological maxim

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Franz Brentano made substantial contributions to philosophy. He created a system synthesis of Aristotelianism and Cartesianism. Brentano’s philosophical system had a profound effect on his students. They were deeply influenced by his unwavering certainty and intellectual passion. Several of these students became famous philosophers. These philosophers are often referred to as the “School of Franz Brentano.”

Brentano defended his dissertation on Aristotle at the University of Tubingen in 1862. He began teaching at the University of Vienna in 1874. He continued his academic career at the University of Wurzburg. He was promoted to full professor in 1873. In 1895, Brentano moved to Zurich, Switzerland. In his lifetime, Brentano did not publish many works on metaphysical topics. He mainly wrote lectures and lecture notes. However, some of his writings were edited by other scholars.

Brentano’s students included Edmund Husserl, Kazimierz Twardowski, Alexius Meinong, and Christian von Ehrenfels. These philosophers studied with Brentano and attended his lectures. Brentano’s influence is still felt in the contemporary philosophy of mind.

In the early twentieth century, Brentano’s contributions to philosophy were widely discussed. His work had a great impact on his students, many of whom went on to become famous philosophers. Brentano’s students were interested in psychology and believed that philosophy should be a rigorous science.

Brentano’s students studied under Brentano in seminars and through correspondence. Brentano’s students did not attempt to unite forces. They were deeply interested in certain topics, and they were willing to pay for the independence of thinking.

The Brentano School was composed of many leading lights in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The philosophers’ correspondence and lectures helped the students become familiar with Brentano’s philosophy.

The Life and Work of Franz Brentano

Those who know the name Franz Brentano are probably aware of his famous theory of mind. But did you know that he also wrote about metaphysics and intentionality? In this article, we will examine some of these areas and the work that Franz Brentano did.

Brentano’s Theory of Mind

During the late nineteenth century, the German philosopher Franz Brentano made an important contribution to psychology. He was a philosopher who occupied a position between Cartesians and Aristotelians. Brentano wrote several works, including a major work called Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. He also had a successful career as a professor. He died in Zurich.

One of his most important contributions is his theory of mind. It explains why all mental states are conscious. He also shows why many mental phenomena appear to consciousness as a unitary reality.

Brentano posits an intrinsic property of mental states, which he calls intentionality. Intentionality has been a key starting point for intentionalist theories of consciousness. However, Brentano’s version is different from that of Leclerc. Brentano posits two characteristics of the mind: noticing and intentionality. He does not believe that the two are reducible to each other. However, he has a few interesting ideas about their relationship.

Brentano’s concept of intentionality is not as strong as his theory of mind. He posits that the intentionality of an object is an intrinsic property of its mental state. This is not the case with all mental phenomena, however. He also argues that the object is an implicitly observable part of a psychological act.

Moreover, Brentano posits a hierarchy of objects, which includes primary and secondary objects. He suggests that the primary object is a part of the same reality, and the secondary object is a metaphysical part of the unitary phenomenon.

Works by Franz Brentano

During the early twentieth century, Franz Brentano was an influential philosopher. Brentano’s work contributed to the development of phenomenology and helped to form the ideas of many contemporary thinkers. He also played a key role in the development of Austrian Tradition. Brentano’s work influenced Husserl and Heidegger, both of whom later developed their own phenomenology.

Franz Brentano was a member of the German-Italian intellectual family. He studied mathematics and philosophy at university. Brentano taught at the University of Vienna and the University of Wurzburg. He taught many important thinkers, including Edmund Husserl and Sigmund Freud.

Brentano’s work demonstrates a fundamental incoherence. The published work is very limited, and many of the unpublished materials are of great importance. Brentano’s system is still in need of critical editing.

Brentano’s philosophy has two main parts. The first part deals with his early works. Brentano’s first writings show his dual interests in metaphysics and psychology. The second part deals with his pupils. These include Edmund Husserl, who developed his analysis of consciousness from Brentano’s lectures.

Brentano’s philosophy also shows a bias towards empirical research. This has consequences for assessing his philosophical theory. He believes that philosophy deals better with human affairs than religion. Brentano also believed that philosophy is a religious enterprise. He also fought against the dogma of papal infallibility. He later withdrew from his priesthood. Brentano’s philosophical efforts were primarily natural theology.

Franz Brentano Time Consciousness

During the mid-nineteenth century, Franz Brentano developed a philosophical system of time consciousness. He distinguished between perceptual consciousness and intentional consciousness. He also argued that seeing and hearing are not two distinct mental acts, but rather a single act directed at several distinct objects.

He was a prominent figure in the development of the philosophy in central Europe. His influence extended to many students. Some of his students went on to become important psychologists. Others became professors in different parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Brentano had a special interest in Aristotle. He published two books on the philosopher. His thesis advisor was Franz Jakob Clemens. Brentano wrote his dissertation in 1862 at the University of Tubingen. His last home was in Zurich, Switzerland. He died on March 17, 1917.

Brentano studied at several universities. He was a professor at the University of Vienna from 1885 to 1895. His theories were influenced by British empiricists. He also read Aristotle and theology. Brentano was ordained a priest on August 6, 1864. He left the priesthood in 1873, after the definition of papal infallibility.

Brentano had a huge number of unpublished manuscripts. Recently, his works were discovered. One of these manuscripts is a collection of shorter texts on psychology. The book was published in 1907. Brentano’s other major work was a book on Aristotle and his World View.

Brentano’s concept of an object is derived from the Aristotelian scholarship. The object is a transcendent entity. Brentano argued that consciousness is a mental act that appears to itself as a mental phenomenon.

Also Read: Who is Imani Showalter?

Franz Brentano Brentano’s Metaphysics

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Franz Brentano was a key figure in both philosophy and psychology. His teachings and writings have had an enormous impact on many important thinkers, such as Edmund Husserl, Charles Darwin, Anton Marty, Sigmund Freud, and Virginia Woolf. Brentano’s works remain influential in our contemporary times.

His philosophies have influenced psychology, modernist literature, and intentionalist analytic philosophy. Brentano’s writings are of great interest to historians of philosophy. This volume explores his philosophical work in the context of modern philosophy. The volume includes studies that examine the relevance of his metaphysics and psychology.

The first section examines Brentano’s conception of the history of philosophy. This theory is central to his philo- sophical program. The second section looks at Brentano’s conception of empirical psychology. The third section discusses Brentano’s later program of descriptive phenomenology.

The final section addresses Brentano’s conception of mereology. This branch of philosophy addresses the ultimate foundations of things. In particular, it seeks the teleological order of nature. Theology, meanwhile, focuses on the search for the foundations and principle of the universe.

The study of this volume is valuable for students and researchers in the history of philosophy. It demonstrates the influence of Brentano on contemporary philosophers, including Edmund Husserl, Franz Brentano’s student, and Martin Heidegger, who cited his 1862 dissertation.

The volume also contains a number of valuable unpublished manuscripts. They contain lectures, lecture notes, and selected questions from Brentano’s metaphysics and psychology. The unpublished materials are important for researchers who wish to study the development of Brentano’s philosophy and psychology.

Franz Brentano Intentionality

Historically, Franz Brentano is viewed as a philosopher who introduced the concept of intentionality. His work was especially important in the Austrian Tradition. He had a special interest in Aristotle and theology. He became ordained a priest on 6 August 1864.

Although Brentano never developed an explicit ontology, he did address some key concerns about intentionality. He did not claim to have formulated an ontology, but he did suggest that an exceptional form of relation existed. This prompted an increasing number of philosophers to rediscover Brentano’s work. Some of the most prominent Brentano School students were Ferdinand Twardowski and Edmund Husserl.

The Aristotelian foundations of Brentano’s thought were far from contemporary philosophies of mind. However, they have gained renewed interest over the last two decades. Several interpreters have compared Brentano’s intentionality thesis to the theory of “phenomenal intentionality.”

In the Aristotelian-scholastic tradition, the object of a mental act is a faculty, but the concept of object is not the same as the one commonly attributed to modern philosophies. A mental act is not phenomenally experienced, but it stands in a quasi-relational relationship with an object. It is a property of man, but it is not a property of any particular type of entity.

Brentano’s notion of object has been challenged by recent representationalist theories. He claims that a mental act consists of a direct and an indirect presentation of a single object. This is the most impressive, though it has been challenged as well.

Franz Brentano Secondary Sources

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Franz Brentano was one of the most important figures in European philosophy. Brentano made important contributions to epistemology, psychology, and logic. He made a major contribution to the study of intentionality, which has influenced many philosophers, psychologists, and psychoanalysts.

Brentano was a pioneer in empirical psychology. His psychology from an empirical standpoint, written in 1874, remains a major work in the history of philosophy. He developed an Aristotelian system of philosophy, which helped to reestablish scholastic philosophy standards. His philosophy is now being studied in an ongoing renaissance.

Brentano was ordained a Catholic priest in 1864. He taught philosophy at the University of Vienna from 1874 to 1880. His thesis, which had a huge influence on Continental philosophy, was cited by Martin Heidegger.

Brentano’s ideas were propagated through six directions. Anton Marty propagated the Prague School of orthodox Brentanianism; Christian von Ehrenfels propagated early Austrian economic thought; Kazimierz Twardowski propagated Polish philosophy, and Alexius Meinong propagated Italian Gestalt Psychology.

Franz Brentano’s ideas have been extensively debated in German-speaking countries, as well as in Italy and Poland. His theories have had a huge influence on modernist literature, such as Virginia Woolf, Henry James, and Franz Kafka.

Brentano’s writings have been edited and published many times. Brentano’s complete published works are collected in the Franz Brentano Archive, co-edited by Thomas Binder. Other manuscripts are still held in the libraries of Graz and Wurzburg. Unpublished manuscripts include lecture notes on selected questions from psychology and metaphysics.

Rediscovering Brentano

Having read a few of the books written by Franz Brentano, it has been intriguing to see how his ideas have been used and incorporated by others. This article explores the books that were written by the author, and looks at the various ways they have been used in the study of psychology.

Franz Brentano Rigorous Science

Known as the founder of phenomenology, Franz Brentano was an influential philosopher who influenced Edmund Husserl. Brentano’s nascent empiricism had a strong influence on many of the philosophers of the late nineteenth century in Vienna.

Franz Brentano was born in Germany and educated in theology, mathematics, and philosophy. He received his doctorate in philosophy in absentia from the University of Tubingen in 1862. He then did seminary work in Munich and Wurzburg. He was ordained a priest in 1864. He became a professor at the University of Vienna in 1874. He then moved to Zurich, Switzerland, and later retired to Florence, Italy. He died in 1917.

Brentano was critical of Darwinism and of its apparent denial of purpose in nature. Brentano was also involved in a controversy over papal infallibility. He was asked to write a statement in response to a challenge to papal infallibility at the First Vatican Council.

Brentano was influenced by phenomenology, which uses scientific principles to describe consciousness. He claimed that descriptive psychology is a concrete example of philosophy using the scientific method. Brentano also taught gestalt, theory of meaning, and experimental psychology. His students included Edmund Husserl, Anton Marty, Sigmund Freud, and Alexius Meinong.

Brentano’s reformed logic emphasizes the exact linguistic expression and rigorous deductive reasoning. This style of logic allows philosophical language to express discoveries in a clearer manner. It is also useful for interpreting deeper structures in philosophical language.

Brentano also argued that the natural sciences could never yield absolute truths. He believed that the only way to know whether an object is a true philosophical object is by deducing its consequences. In other words, Brentano believed that natural science methods required sequential steps.

Franz Brentano Unity of Consciousness

During the nineteenth century, Brentano was considered a forerunner in the contemporary study of same order or intentionalist theories of consciousness. His theories are often credited with providing the necessary information for contemporary philosophers to understand the nature of consciousness. The main idea of this paper is to compare Brentano’s theory with other contemporary theories, focusing on the Aristotelian roots of his thought.

Aside from intentionality, Brentano’s theories also include concepts of unconsciousness, object, and unconsciousness. His theory also posits that mental states are multilayered and in dependence. He explains why many mental states appear to consciousness as unitary phenomena. Despite his success in explaining the origin of consciousness, his theory has been criticised for a number of reasons.

One of the more interesting claims of Brentano’s is his assertion that all conscious states are innerly aware. In this context, the concept of “implicit awareness” is closely related to “noticing.”

Brentano’s theory is also credited with introducing the concept of “presentation,” which is a form of intentionality. This concept has been disputed recently, with some interpreters believing it to be a misnomer. Brentano’s notion of presentation has little in common with contemporary representationalist theories.

Brentano’s theory is also notable for its assertion that all conscious states are directed towards something. This is a major departure from the ordinary rules of philosophy. It is also the first theory to describe mental acts in terms of wholes and parts.

In a sense, all Brentano’s theses are worth looking at, though many have been misunderstood. His theory of intentionality has been the subject of much debate, particularly in the context of contemporary intentionalist theories. In particular, some interpreters have interpreted his thesis as a theory of “phenomenal intentionality.”

Brentano’s concept of object has also been questioned, mainly because it is derived from a medieval and Aristotelian perspective. His conception of an object is actually the same as the scholastic concept of “faculty” and “intent.”

In addition, Brentano’s concept of the “unity of consciousness” is also worth looking at. This is not an obvious implication of the principle, but it is a clever way to explain why all mental states are conscious.

Franz Brentano books

Among the founding fathers of twentieth-century philosophy, Franz Brentano (1838-1917) introduced the concept of intentionality. His work also made significant contributions to the development of logic and ethics. He counted Sigmund Freud among his students.

Brentano’s most important work, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, introduced his theory of introspection. This book helped to establish psychology as a scientific discipline.

In addition, Brentano’s philosophical system comprises mind, value and being. His theories have important implications for cognitive science and consciousness studies. He is one of the founders of the Lwow-Warsaw school.

He was also one of the first to argue that thoughts are always directed towards something. His account of conscious states also makes a notable mention of the qualitative character of conscious states.

Brentano also defined thought as the thinking soul. He made a point of distinguishing between descriptive psychology and genetic psychology. He also distinguished between introspective psychology and empirical psychology. He argued that presentations are always directed towards something, although some presentations are pleasant and others painful.

One of his best known contributions is his theory of intentionality. His account of presentational events places a great deal of stress on the object of presentation. However, he ignores the intrinsic properties of presentation. His account is not a good fit for reality.

Although Brentano made a number of other important contributions to logic, his best known work is Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. His views have been misread in the analytic literature, however, and his place in history has been muddled. David Bell has addressed these misunderstandings and corrected them. A useful edition of his work is available from Benito Muller. Whether or not Brentano’s claims about intentional inexistence are truly a novelty in the analytic literature is debatable.

Franz Brentano Inner Perception

During the last ten years, Franz Brentano’s philosophy has been receiving renewed interest. Several recent works have explored the correlates of Brentano’s doctrine.

In the first part of the book, the philosophical background is examined. The second part discusses the main topics of Brentano’s psychology. The third part attempts to place the views of Brentano in the context of contemporary philosophy of mind.

In Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, Franz Brentano identifies the fundamental classification of mental phenomena. His theory of consciousness is based on inner perception, the inductive inference of observed data, and intentional directedness.

Brentano’s theory of judgment, however, is a nonpropositional theory. In his theory, predicative judgments are explained in terms of existential ones. He also introduces the concept of the soul into psychology.

Brentano’s philosophy of psychology aims to provide a foundation for the science of consciousness. This approach distinguishes between inner perception and outer perception, and identifies noetic, sensory, and noetic objects of inner perception. In addition, he identifies the three sources of evidence used in science of consciousness. These are recollection of past experiences, observation of behavior, and recollection of other people’s mental acts.

Franz Brentano was a priest first and a philosopher second. He was born to an upper class family. His education was in history, philosophy, and mathematics. He received a doctorate from the University of Tubingen when he was 24 years old. He began teaching logic at the University of Wurzburg at age 29. He resigned his priesthood in 1873. He taught psychology at the University of Vienna in the 1880s. He also published several important essays.

Brentano’s most important essays were published in books, essays, and novels. He was a member of several Viennese cultural societies. He was an influential teacher. He was a spirited critic of Catholic dogmas.

Tripartition of Mental Phenomena

During the late nineteenth century, Franz Brentano’s contributions to philosophy were widely debated. He was a philosopher and psychologist. His works played a crucial role in the development of the Austrian Tradition. He had a strong influence on many students and philosophers. He is often referred to as the “grandfather” of the phenomenological movement. Brentano’s theory of the tripartition of mental phenomena is one of his most important contributions.

Brentano’s theory is a departure point for Edmund Husserl’s phenomenological method. It is one of the first ideas to express a higher-order perception theory of consciousness. Brentano’s theory is based on the idea that every mental phenomenon is an object of inner perception. This notion is distinct from other distinguishing concepts in descriptive psychology. It is also unique in the history of philosophy.

Brentano’s concept of proteraesthesis is also noteworthy. He introduces the notion of original association. This is not a representation of the mental phenomenon, but rather a way to connect various components.

Brentano has also made changes to his theory of time-consciousness. He changed his position to accommodate changes in his overall views. He also introduced modo recto. In 1911, he published the second edition of his Classification of Mental Phenomena. This was followed by the third edition in Leipzig in 1925.

Brentano is often referred to as the “grandfather” or “first” of the phenomenological movement. He was also a charismatic teacher. His students became famous philosophers and psychologists. They spread Brentanianism throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In his later years, Brentano lost his sight. He died in Zurich. Brentano’s last manuscripts may have been left in Florence. Nevertheless, Brentano’s impact on philosophy was soon eclipsed by his students’ traditions.

What is the philosophy of Franz Brentano?

According to Brentano, every mental phenomenon is directed towards itself as a secondary object; inner perception is, thus, a form of mechanism on the basis of which we become aware of our own mental phenomena.

What is Franz Brentano’s best contribution to psychology?

Franz Brentano (1838-1917) was one of the earliest psychologists of the emerging schools of psychology, best known for introducing the empirical-based concept of intentionality.

Which type of psychology did Brentano found?

Background: Franz Brentano (1838-1917) is known as the founder of act psychology. He proposed it in opposition to structuralism. For Brentano, what is important is what the mind does, not what is contained within it.

What is intentional inexistence?

in act psychology and phenomenology, the principle that the object of perception or thought (the intentional object) exists within the act of perceiving or thinking.

Who is the father of old child psychology?

Jean Piaget is considered the father of child psychology. He was interested in the thought processes of children from birth through adolescence.

How can a person become philosophical in reasoning?

1. be open to changing their minds;
2. avoid bias;
3. think logically;
4. dig deeper for the truth, whether they like that truth or not; and/or.
5. set aside narrow-mindedness, superstitions, magical thinking, and impulsiveness.

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